History of The Knights Templar Order – Knights Templar Tours discovering the ‘real’ history of the Knights Templar Order in Portugal
The Knights Templar are best known from books and films like “The Da Vinci Code” and “First Templar Nation”. But there is much more to discover about these fabled mediaeval warrior monks and their history.
You can discover this for yourself on one of our private guided history tours.
Tomar was the Headquarters of the Knights Templar Order in Portugal for nearly 700 years. The Knights Templar castle which dominates the town was constructed in 1160. The Castle, and the Convent of Christ, contained within the site, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 1190, the Christian Knights were fighting to free Portugal from Islamic domination. An Islamic army crossed the River Tejo, captured the nearby castle at Torres Novas and put Tomar under siege.
The town was besieged by the Muslim army for six days but never surrendered to them. Despite the overwhelming odds, Gualdim Pais, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, who was over 70 years old at the time, successfully defended Tomar along with the knights that he led. He had demonstrated, yet again, his military prowess and his religious calling as a fighting monk. This victory underscored the military strength of the Templar Order and the part it had to play in defeating the Moors.
Gualdim Pais founded Tomar and his statue dominates the main square in the town’s historic centre. Gualdim Pais also supervised the building or restoration of several other frontier castles for the Templar order including the Castles of Almourol, Monsanto, and Pombal. He also founded the city of Pombal. He granted land to new Christian settlers moving into the lands freed from Muslim rule. He was a remarkable man and a gifted and visionary leader.
From this victory, the Knights Templar along with other Portuguese nobility gradually re-Christianised the whole of Portugal. Over the following centuries, the power and wealth of the Order grew substantially. Then in the early part of the 14th century, it all came to a tragic and violent end. The King of France, jealous of the Order, persuaded the Pope that the Knights Templar Order should be destroyed.
The Templars had their land and their wealth taken from them and the Order was finished. Except in Portugal. The King of Portugal, Dinis, did not believe the accusations made against the Order. Dinis offered the Order protection by persuading the Pope to agree to his forming a new Order, the Order of Christ. He transferred the Templar holdings to it and moved its headquarters away from Tomar. The Order was then dedicated to the re-conquest of Iberia from the Muslims and wars against Muslim states in Africa. King Dinis had to disguise the fact that he was keeping the banned Knights Templar Order. So he moved the headquarters of the new Order of Christ to the fortress at Castro Marim, near the border with Spain.Tomar was no longer the Headquarters for the Knights Templar under their new name. But 100 years later it was restored by one of the most remarkable men of his time. Prince Henry the Navigator.
It was Henry the Navigator, who restored Tomar as the headquarters for the Order of Christ. He had living quarters made for himself and his wife within the Castle. He had two new courtyards built for the brothers. The ‘Laundry Cloister’ above the original Templar cloister where the lay brothers did their chores and washed their clothes. The ‘Cemetery Cloister’ where the friar knights were buried. Prince Henry the Navigator was determined to use the knowledge of astronomy, mathematics, trigonometry and numbers inherited from the Jews and Arabs to discover new lands. These sciences were all brought together to develop ways of calculating the position of a ship at sea. Until this had been achieved no sailor could tell with any degree of accuracy the position of a ship at sea. The Knights Templar castle at Tomar was at the centre of these discoveries.
One group of people who benefited from their connection to the Order were the Jews. During the 15th century, Spain was expelling Jews, confiscating their estates and wealth. But Portugal was doing its utmost to conserve them in their country. Jews enjoyed a privileged situation in Portugal, choosing their own quarters and occupying the most desired places. The nobles in Portugal took beautiful Jewish maidens as mistresses and recognized their offspring. They made them Knights and had their illegitimate sons join the Order of Christ. This is reflected in the 15th-century Synagogue in Tomar, one of the oldest synagogues in Europe.
Over the following centuries, the power of the Order of Christ declined in Portugal. Eventually, it ceased to exist except for some of the ceremonial titles held by the head of the Portuguese state.
The spirit of the Knights Templar Order still lives on in Tomar. In the magnificent Castle and Convent and the historic town. There are many books and films about the Knights Templar. But their role in Portugal and the discoveries of the New World have hardly merited a mention outside of Portugal. But through our Knights Templar Tours, you can discover the real history of the incredible Knights Templar Order on one of our private guided history tours or contact us for a customised tour.